Thì hiện tại hoàn thành (Present perfect)

Mẫu câu ví dụ về thì hiện tại hoàn thành

Sim is looking for his key. He can’t find it. He has lost his key.

=> Sim mất chìa khoá = Anh ấy vừa mới mất gần đây và anh ấy chưa tìm được chìa khoá

Cấu trúc thì hiện tại hoàn thành

S + Have/has + V-ed

(V-ed = quá khứ phân từ / động từ quá khứ hoặc động từ bất quy tắc)
l/we/they/you
he/she/it
have
has
finished
lost
done
been

*Quá khứ phân từ là động từ kết nối -ed (finished/decided etc.),
*Quá khứ phân từ còn là động từ bất quy tắt (lost/done/written)

When we say that ‘something has happened’, this is usually new information:

  • Ow! I’ve cut my finger.
  • The road is closed. There’s been (there has been) an accident.
  • (from the news) Police have arrested two men in connection with the robbery.

When we use the present perfect, there is a connection with now. The action in the past has a result now:

  • ‘Where’s your key?’ ‘I don’t know. I’ve lost it.’ (= I don’t have it now)
  • He told me his name, but I have forgotten it. (= I can’t remember it now)
  • ‘Is Sally here?’ ‘No, she has gone out.’ (= she is out now)
  • I can’t find my bag. Have you seen it? (= Do you know where it is now?)

Note the difference between gone (to) and been (to):

Tom is on holiday. He has gone to Italy. (= he is there now or on his way there) .

Tina is back home now. She has been to Italy. (= she has now come back)

You can use the present perfect with just, already and yet.

Just =a short time ago:

  • ‘Are you hungry?’ ‘No, I have just had lunch.’
  • Hello. Have you just arrived?

We use already to say that something happened sooner than expected:

  • ‘Don’t forget to pay your electricity bill’ ‘I have already paid it.’
  • ‘What time is Mark leaving?’ ‘He has already left.’

Yet = until now. Yet shows that the speaker is expecting something to happen. Use yet only in questions and negative sentences:

  • Has it stopped raining yet?
  • I have written the email, but I have not sent it yet.

You can also use the past simple (did, went, had etc.) in the examples on this page. So you can say:

  • ‘Is Sally here?’ ‘No, she went out.’ or ‘No, she has gone out.’
  • ‘Are you hungry?’ ‘No, I just had lunch.